Saturday, 31 May 2008

Abu Dhabi Heats Up The Global Solar Market Two Billion Dollar Investment In Photovoltaic Manufacturing

Masdar PV today announced a multi-billion dollar investment in thin-film photovoltaic solar technology, as part of its drive to become a world leader in alternative energy. The total investment of over US$2 billion represents one of the largest investments ever made in solar, and will fund a three-phased manufacturing and expansion strategy to produce the latest generation of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules.

Phase one involves an investment of US$600 million, which will fund the development of two manufacturing facilities -- the first, in Erfurt, Germany will be operational by Q3 2009, and a second facility in Abu Dhabi which will begin initial production by Q2 2010. The combined annual production capacity of these two sites will be 210 megawatts, which is committed to major PV system installers in Europe and for Masdar's own energy generation needs.

Masdar chose Germany as the site for its first plant because Germany is currently the center of the global PV industry. This German plant will act as a reference plant for technology and knowledge transfer to the larger Abu Dhabi plant by a joint German-Abu Dhabi team.

This approach represents a significant step in Masdar's objective to transform Abu Dhabi into an developer and exporter of technology, rather than an importer. With a goal of reaching 1 gigawatt of annual production by 2014 through capacity expansions and other new plants, this multi-country operation will allow Masdar PV to become a global leader in thin-film PV.

Dr. Sultan Al Jaber, CEO of Masdar, said, "Thin-film PV is a key part of our build-deploy-develop strategy to actively build a strong position in alternative energy. Abu Dhabi is a global energy leader, so it makes sense to engage these new energy technologies and become a leader in alternatives," al Jaber explained.

"This marks a major milestone for Masdar and Abu Dhabi. It will not only establish Masdar as a major global PV player, but will be the first high-tech semiconductor nano-manufacturing facility of its kind in the entire region," he added.

According to Deutsche Bank the current global PV market is worth US$15 billion and growing rapidly at 40% per year. Thin film PV is growing even faster, with an annual growth rate of 100.

The plants will use the latest generation of equipment capable of high-volume processing of ultra-large glass substrates, which, at 5.7 m2, are eight times larger and five times more powerful than that of the current market leader.

High-volume manufacturing of thin film PV, which requires less than 1% of expensive semiconductor material compared to traditional PV, is key to rapidly driving down the cost of PV and making it fully-competitive with fossil fuels.

The technology for grid-parity solar power exists in most sunny markets today. It's a matter of achieving the right scale to achieve lower costs. Masdar PV will combine scale plus a proven PV technology, advanced manufacturing capability, and advanced R and D to deliver lower costs

PV industry experts applauded the move. "This potentially represents a paradigm shift in solar, a real game-changer," commented Dr. Winfried Hoffmann, President of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association, the largest organization representing the PV industry.

"The entry of such powerful energy leaders into solar is very exciting, and could change the dynamics of the entire industry" by not only adding capacity but also new future big markets in and around the Middle East with a lot of sun and capital to deploy PV systems, he added.

In addition to low-cost manufacturing, thin film PV offers requires only one year to pay back the carbon cost of producing these panels, and maintenance costs are minimal. It is ideally suited for hot sunny climates, as well as for building-integrated solutions, known as BIPV.

Source - Solar Daily

Enquiries for solar panels are rising fast

Theories were emerging yesterday over the environmental effects of oil at $130 a barrel or more. In the green corner were the optimists, who believe that the shock will force people to cut their energy use, invest in renewables and energy conservation, downsize their cars, take fewer foreign holidays and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Others fear that oil prices at this level for any length of time will usher in a new bleak period where governments turn to extracting coal, growing biofuels and deforestation.

There was evidence of both trends yesterday. As Honda announced it was increasing output of its hybrid cars because of high fuel prices, Stuart Lovett of Heat my said inquiries about his company’s solar panels to heat water and generate electricity through solar panels, had risen by more than 50% in five months.

“The oil price rises change the payback period dramatically. Anyone who buys solar equipment now has probably paid off the investment at the moment he buys it. High oil prices like this are good for us but no one else.”

“These prices are already proving to be the biggest single factor in curtailing the expansion of the aviation industry, and that wont necessarily be a bad thing,” said Ben Stewart, communications director at Greenpeace. “One hopes it will lead to a huge investment in alternative sources of energy. We are moving into the unknown. As prices increase, it will just have to lead to the investment that we so desperately need.”

Tom Burke, environmental scientist and visiting professor at Imperial College London, said that in the short term the oil price rise would cause a rush to exploit oil tar sands in Canada and Venezuela, and possibly deforestation in the Amazon to clear space for biofuels.

“We have passed the peak of cheap oil. I do not think it will slow down Indian and Chinese vehicle use. It will really hit the aviation industry and could cut the ground under the push for the third runway at Heathrow. It could also strengthen the localisation movement.” The majority of companies, he said, had already done a lot already to reduce their energy use.

Environmental consultant and former -director of Friends of the Earth Charles Secrett said the lesson of history in high oil prices was that it was an opportunity for change. “In the years after the 1973 oil shock, energy efficiency soared, but governments did not step in with policies to encourage alternatives energies to flourish. They have the real choice now.”

In the short term, the oil price rise is expected to cause further increases in the price of fertilisers, which doubled last year as US farmers rushed to put as much on fields as possible to take advantage of high prices for biofuel crops. But in poor countries the more expensive fertilisers are likely to be beyond the means of most small farmers. This could reduce farm yields and incomes, and result in more deforestation as people turn to any source of income they can.

“This is a wake-up call. In the short term we can already see people in the US cutting down on their driving, starting to use public transport and not buying SUVs. But in the long term it means that we have to completely rethink how we use energy”, said Walt Patterson, a fellow in the sustainable development programme at Chatham House in London.

Source - The Guardian

Monday, 26 May 2008

UK energy prices rising faster than Europe’s

UK power companies are threatening yet another round of price rises that could see bills climb by a total of 46% this year.

Yesterday they were accused of effectively rigging the market against customers by Energywatch, the official consumer body.

It said the big six power generators are on course to collect £6bn in what Energywatch chief executive Allan Asher described as unearned profits in the next few years.

Mr Asher told MPs the industry is exploiting consumers and using immoral tactics. He accused the firms of being bloated and inefficient, with the result that as many as one in three bills are wrong.

He condemned the fact that some of the poorest people in the country have to pay much more for heat and light through prepayment meters. The supliers make £ 1.3bn a year in this way but refuse to help the vast majority of struggling customers.

The Commons Business and Enterprise Select Committee is holding an inquiry into rising enegy prices.

Mr Asher said a full-blown Competition Commission inquiry is needed to unravel the secretive power supply contracts that are pushing bills through the roof.

He is particularly alarmed that the power companies are getting fat by tying the price of gas to spiralling oil prices, which have reached record levels recently.

Mr Asher believes this ‘toxic’ link means that annual bills for heat and light are £400 a year higher than they should be.

He said the UK market was ’stitched-up’ with the result that prices in Britain are systematically rising much more quickly than in Europe. ‘It makes a mockery of saying we have a competitive and healthy market,’ he declared.

Over the last ten years, the number of energy firms in the UK has shrunk from 20 to six - British Gas, E.on, Npower, EDF, Scottish & Southern Energy and Scottish Power.

These companies not only sell heat and light but are also responsible for producing or importing 80% of gas and electricity.

Mr Asher said this has created a ‘comfortable oligopoly’ with the result that there is a price gap of only £30 a year between the cheapest and most expensive firm based on a dual fuel contract. He said the notion that there was competition in the industry was a myth. ‘There is a lot of pretence of competition, but it doesn’t amount to good companies winning and bad companies losing,’ Mr Asher added.

‘They really don’t feel the need to innovate or compete. Sadly, consumers are the losers. Consumers are getting in the neck.’

Mr Asher said action was needed to encourage new firms to enter the UK market, both to build new generating stations or to sell to the public.

Mr Asher said the 5.8m households who have prepayment meters ‘have to pay punitively higher prices’. He went on: ‘Why is it that pre-payment meter customers are paying up to £400 a year more for the identical commodity? This is an immoral premium.’

For anyone who as not realised yet, this will definately mean the ‘golden age of cheap energy’ is over in the UK and globally.

Source - Heatmyhome

Solar panels become a investment paradise

Without wanting to praise those who led the argument that climate change is the most serious issue facing the human race, it also represents one of the biggest investment themes for the next 20 years.

As such, it is time investors understood how and why climate change and investing are related and how they can adjust their portfolios accordingly.

This is not just about socially responsible investing or even whether you believe the scientific evidence. As an asset manager we have a fiduciary responsibility to provide investors with the best risk-adjusted returns looking at market trends and emerging sectors. It is becoming apparent that our responsibility extends to include environmental considerations in this analysis.

To many in the industry this seems counter-intuitive, particularly alongside the conventional wisdom that sensitivity to environmental factors detracts from investment returns. The oft-stated reasons behind this thinking being that either environmental rankings in stock selection are negatively correlated with the price performance of stocks, or the environmental screening resulting from SRI diminishes the opportunity set of companies that an investor can buy.

Whatever your personal take on climate change, it is clear we have reached a tipping point in public and political opinion. This is fuelling a change in consumer and investment trends, which will not only continue but accelerate in the years to come. Investors need to understand how the companies in which they place their money are rising to the challenge.

This is driving increased demand for agricultural equipment. Most likely this will support demand for AGCO’s products for years to come. While not obviously a company benefiting from climate change directly, its business is being favourably affected by shifts in demand prompted by climate change.

Source - Heatmyhome

iPower Solar Energy Heats Up Real World Hollywood Reality Show

Integrated Power (iPower) designed and supplied solar energy to the house used in this season's hit reality show, Real World: Hollywood to demonstrate to today's pop culture how easy it is to live with eco-friendly lifestyle choices.

"iPower applauds Real World: Hollywood for its interest in impacting its millions of viewers with alternative energy, eco-friendly appliances and furnishings - even a computer powered by a bicycle - to show how easy it can be to be green," said iPower President Eric Pollock.

"We're pleased to be a partner in the inspirational, energy-efficient home design used for their 20th season."

iPower supplied and installed a custom designed solar energy system with traditional PV modules and unique inlay of solar PV glass on the outside awning.

The system was designed to work off the grid so the outside lighting on the set could be self sustaining, powered completely by the sun.

iPower also supplied a custom designed monitoring display solution to allow for real time tracking and demonstration of the energy production.

"iPower's knowledgeable team and innovative ideas and products provided great solar solutions to the Real World: Hollywood eco-friendly home," says Charles Aubrey, production designer.

The home also boasts of energy efficient lighting, energy star appliances, and eco-friendly furniture, counters, carpet and flooring.

Source - Solardaily

Solar Energy Valuable As Hedge Against Future Utility Rate Volatility

Tioga Energy has released a report that makes a case for solar energy as a cost saving hedge against future increases in electric utility rates. The report, titled "Hedging Against Utility Rate Fluctuations with a Solar PPA" details the rise in energy rates in California since 1970, and gauges the potential for rate increases in the years to come.

The volatility and escalation witnessed to date, coupled with the challenges California-based businesses and organizations face, illustrate the need for businesses to consider managing their electricity price risk through a solar power purchase agreement.

Relying on data collected from the Energy Information Administration and an analysis by the California Public Utilities Commission, the Tioga Energy report reviews California rate increases from 1970 to the present, analyzes the likelihood of future utility electricity price increases, and then compares the forecasted electric utility rate increases with the fixed rates of a solar power purchase agreement (PPA).

The findings demonstrate a compelling argument for businesses to adopt solar energy for its positive impact as a financial hedge.

The study found that California rates have risen steadily from 1970 to 2004, with compound annual growth rates (CAGR) in the range of 7%, depending on customer and utility segments.

Further analysis shows that a range of complex factors will have significant impact on future utility rates, including increased reliance on natural gas; a high probability of additional operating costs associated with carbon emissions cap-and-trade legislation; and increased costs and time required for new power plant and transmission development.

Leveraging proven statistical modeling methodologies outlined in the paper, the report illustrates the probability of electric utility rate increases in the future, and how solar PPAs provide strong protection against the risks of those increases. Tioga's solar savings model -- which is used with customers and partners to forecast probable solar savings under various scenarios -- shows that:

- Typical solar PPAs offer a very high probability of significant savings over future electric utility rates

- Even Solar PPAs with an initial price substantially higher than current electric utility rates can be more likely than not to generate a net savings over time.

Tioga's solar savings model demonstrates that the fixed rates of a solar PPA offer strong protection against the risk of electric utility rate increases.

The paper demonstrates a solar energy PPA's validity as a sound financial choice to guard against the probable electric utility rate increases caused by rising utility fuel and construction costs and environmental regulation associated with global climate change.

Source - Solar daily

Thursday, 22 May 2008

The Queen goes green with world's largest wind turbine

The Queen is going green by investing in the largest wind turbine in the world, her property company the Crown Estate said on Wednesday.

The Estate, which owns most of the seabed off Britain's shores, regularly leases out its land to wind farm projects but has never invested in the turbines.

With a capacity of 7.5 megawatts, the Crown has gone for the biggest yet.

"This is not something we've ever done before and I think it will raise quite a few eyebrows," Ben Barton, the company's offshore manager for wind farms said.

Speaking at an energy conference in Aberdeen, Barton said the Crown Estate had decided to make the investment to help overcome turbine supply difficulties, which he said were a key constraint to the construction of off-shore wind farms.

The turbine will be built by the London-listed wind turbine maker Clipper Windpower and will be fully operational by 2010, Barton said, with all the power generated to be sold to the national grid.

The Crown Estate is looking at areas in north-east England as a possible site for the project, he said.

The company also said it was seeking initial expressions of interest from firms wishing to be considered for developing 100 MW or more capacity in Scottish waters.

Source - Reuters

Monday, 19 May 2008

Five Ways to Reduce Global Warming

1. Methods are emerging for cost-effectively turning waste streams into energy. This addresses both the pollution issue as well as the energy issue. Every municipality should implement one of these myriad of approaches as soon as possible.

2.There are thousands of proven methods for significantly increasing fuel economy and decreasing emissions, which are being implemented on a grassroots level on existing vehicles.The auto industry should implement these from the factory. The shift toward hybrids and all-electric vehicles should also be encouraged and supported, which can be powered from renewable energy sources.

3.Clean energy technologies are arising that can replace fossil-fuel-based energy. Because these are increasingly cost effective, the market is likely to help expedite their emergence, first on the utility scale, then to a distributed level, then to a residential level, and eventually to an individual appliance level.

4.An earth stewardship consciousness is increasing, which helps foster the right awareness and motivation to help these emerging solutions move forward expeditiously.Foremost among the attitude shifts needs to be a dramatic reduction in the consumerism mentality.

5.In as much as a significant degree of global warming is caused by natural mega cycles that we happen to be in, while we might intercede with large scale deflection approaches, an awareness that cycles of death and rejuvenation are natural should be held in perspective. While we should cut back and reverse our contribution to greenhouse gases, and we might even deflect some of the effects of natural greenhouse emissions, we shouldn’t become too fixated on changing what may be a natural phenomenon.

Source - Ways to reduce global warming

Monday, 12 May 2008

SolarCity Helps eBay Switch To Clean Power With Largest Commercial Solar Installation In San Jose

SolarCity has announced that it has completed the largest commercial solar power installation in San Jose on eBay's North campus. The 650 kilowatt (kW) installation -- including 3,248 individual solar panels -- spans 60,000 square feet on multiple buildings. The system will be unveiled later in a ceremony to recognize eBay's first building built to the U.S. Green Building Council's LEED gold standard.

SolarCity also announced a solar power benefits program for eBay employees. The SolarCity program can allow eBay employees to switch to clean, solar power for less money than it costs to remain on utility-based electricity with the SolarLease financing option, and also includes a discounted cash-purchase option.

"I was pleased that SolarCity was the first company to accept my challenge to offer San Jose residents a $0-down option for solar power, and now I'm delighted that they've teamed with eBay on the city's largest commercial solar installation," said San Jose Mayor Chuck Reed.

"Efforts from companies like SolarCity and eBay are helping San Jose become a leader in developing clean technology and adopting clean power, reducing our dependence on expensive, polluting energy sources."

SolarCity estimates that over the next three decades, eBay's solar system will offset 37 million pounds of carbon dioxide; the equivalent of planting 322 acres of trees. SolarCity also estimates that solar-generated power will save eBay approximately $100,000 in electricity costs within its first year of operation.

As with all SolarCity installations, the eBay system includes SolarGuard(TM), SolarCity's advanced solar monitoring system that measures and reports critical performance data to guarantee effective energy production over the system's lifetime.

"While many companies talk about environmental responsibility, eBay is 'walking the walk' with a multi-faceted commitment to clean power and green building," said Lyndon Rive, SolarCity's chief executive officer.

"Our managed solar installation will allow eBay and its employees to measure their collective, positive impact on the environment, and we hope eBay's employee program can serve as an example for other companies to follow as more and more businesses and residents seek affordable, clean power alternatives."

Source - Solardaily

Friday, 9 May 2008

Earth may be heating quicker

Global warming is happening faster than predicted and the world could be as much as seven degrees hotter by the end of the century, a UN scientist says.

New Australian research showed current policies did not go far enough to manage the risks posed by climate change, according to Dr Roger Jones, a climate risk analyst with CSIRO’s energy transformed flagship.

Global action was needed by 2015 to adequately reduce those risks, he said.

The research, conducted by CSIRO and Victoria University, showed even if severe emissions cuts were implemented from 2030, warming of 2.2 to 4.7 degrees could still happen by 2100.

If the present high emissions path was followed, the most likely warming was between 3.4 and 7.2 degrees.

The risks posed by climate change were worse than had been predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2000, Dr Jones said.

The world had moved on to a new economic path, driven by developing countries and commodity-producers like Australia, which would lead to more serious emissions scenarios than the panel’s scientists had forecast.

“We need better methods for updating climate risks and assessing the benefits of avoided damages by investing in new technology and other measures,” Dr Jones said.

“Rapidly emerging climate risks fuelled by faster than projected emissions growth make this task all the more urgent.”

But the fight against climate change is not all bad news.

Work undertaken by CSIRO showed it was very likely cuts to emissions by 2050 would pay for themselves by 2100 in economic terms.

Dr Jones, speaking to the Kyoto Policy in Practice conference in Sydney on Wednesday, said the Kyoto Protocol was the starting point in a long battle against climate change.

“In the race to reduce climate risks, the Kyoto Protocol is the first lap. If we want minimise those risks, we will have to quickly learn how to drive very fast,” he said.

The major benefits from Kyoto were not the reductions in emissions it might achieve, but the lessons learnt about mitigating the increasing risks of global warming.

Source - SMH

Tuesday, 6 May 2008

Global warming deal in 2009 - UN

The world can reach a significant new climate change pact by the end of 2009 if current talks keep up their momentum, the head of the United Nations climate panel said on Sunday.

The United Nations began negotiations on a sweeping new pact in March after governments agreed last year to work out a treaty to succeed the Kyoto Protocol by the end of next year.

“If this momentum continues you will get an agreement that is not too full of compromises,” said Rajendra Pachauri, head of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, during a seminar at the Asian Development Bank annual meeting in Madrid.

Without a deal to cap greenhouse gas emissions around 2015, then halve them by 2050, the world will face ever more droughts, heatwaves, floods and rising seas, according to the U.N. panel.

The United Nations hopes to go beyond Kyoto by getting all countries to agree to curbs on emissions of greenhouse gases that fuel global warming.

Only 37 rich nations were bound to cut emissions under Kyoto. The United States, one of the world’s biggest polluters, refused to join the agreement.

The next talks, to be held in Germany in June, will address funding technology to mitigate climate change — a key demand from developing countries who say rich countries should foot much of the bill.

Getting the private sector on board with a well regulated carbon emissions trading system is key to long-term financing, according to delegates at the ADB seminar.

“Investors need some certainty they will get some return,” said Simon Brooks, vice president at the European Investment Bank.


India’s Pachauri said popular awareness of global warming had risen sharply over the last 12 months and put pressure on Washington and other governments for action.

He said he believed it would be very difficult for any country to remain outside a climate change pact.

“There’s a question of national prestige involved,” said Pachauri, head of the U.N. panel that last year shared the Nobel Peace Prize with former U.S. President Al Gore.

President George W. Bush pulled the United States out of Kyoto in 2001, saying the pact would hurt the economy and was unfair since it excluded big developing nations from committing to emissions cuts.

Key to a new agreement is Asia, notably China, said Odin Knudsen, a managing director for JP Morgan & Chase.

“China is making tremendous progress,” said Knudsen, a specialist in climate change. “It’s in China’s interests and they want to be energy efficient.”

In the last 3 decades Asia’s energy consumption has grown 230 percent and the region has gone from producing one tenth of world greenhouse gas emissions, to a quarter, according to the Asian Development Bank.

The United Nations calculates global warming will cause a 30 percent decline in crop yields in central and south Asia by 2050 and decrease freshwater availability for over a billion people.

Faced with such threats, China is switching over to renewable energy sources which are expected to provide more than 30 percent of its power needs by 2050, according to the United Nations.

Source - Reuters

Saturday, 3 May 2008

20-35% energy price rises predicted for summer 2008

Sadly gas and electricity price hikes of 20-35% are predicted for Summer/Autumn. If so, grabbing a price capped tariff now should save you cash; though the cheapest capped tariffs cost 10%ish more than the current cheapest uncapped tariffs. For those with finances on the brink, hedge towards capping as it provides surety. Of course you could wait, but when price rises start, caps disappear quickly; so it’s a balance.

This comes at a time when engineers, trade unions, farmers and house builders today backed a campaign by Friends of the Earth and the Renewable Energy Association to introduce a “feed-in tariff” system that would improve Britain’s take-up of renewable energy.

Ahead of a crucial House of Commons vote on Wednesday, which aims to add a feed-in tariff to the energy bill currently going through parliament, organisations such as the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the House Builders Federation , the TUC and the National Farmer’s Union said they wanted to see a feed-in tariff (FIT).

FITs have been introduced in nearly 50 countries around the world, starting with Germany which has massively increased the roll-out of technologies such as solar panels, wind turbines, ground-source heat pumps both at the domestic and industrial levels.

FITs work by setting a guaranteed price for renewable electricity fed into the national grid that is above the market price. The countries which have adopted one have made big carbon savings and created thousands of new jobs. Britain, though, lags behind almost every EU country in its use of renewables, producing just 2% of its energy in this way.

Pop star Lily Allen and her solar-power recording studio, the Premises, have emailed MPs urging them to vote for the measure on Wednesday.

“Having worked at the Premises solar powered recording studio I have experienced how clean and green renewable energy is. I fully support giving people a renewable energy reward for the power they generate. It’s good to be green!” said Allen.

REA and Friends of the Earth also have the support of major UK energy academics including Dr Terry Barker, a lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s 4th assessment report last year.

REA director Philip Wolfe said: “The government does not seem to comprehend the urgency of climate change. We need immediate action to rapidly change the way we generate and utilise energy. The renewables industry is heartened by the huge groundswell of support for our sector and we strongly urge the government to take note and to act on this in the energy bill.”

The TUC general secretary, Brendan Barber, added: The TUC believes that without measures such as the Renewable Energy tariff, the UK will not only be left behind in the drive to cut emissions but will fail to be a competitor in the global market for renewable energy which obviously has huge potential over the next decade.”

Friends of the Earth said Britain’s performance on renewable energy was a “national disgrace”.

“If we want families and businesses to tackle climate change by investing in clean technologies such as solar panels for their homes and offices then they must get a strong financial incentive,” said energy campaigner Dave Timms.

“It is vital that the energy bill is amended to include legislation for a feed-in tariff. It is a proven and cost-effective policy. Countries, such as Germany, who have adopted it have raced ahead in generating renewable energy while also creating the green jobs and low-carbon industries of the future.”

The energy bill amendment was introduced by the Labour MP, Alan Simpson. It is supported by the Conservative and Liberal Democrat front benches. Over 100 Labour MPs have signed a parliamentary motion calling for the bill to be amended to include a feed-in tariff.

Source - Guardian

The basics for home energy efficiency

Now that spring has sprung, it’s time to start preparing for winter. This isn’t as odd as it sounds: if you want your home to be toasty come November, and to reduce your carbon footprint, the time for action is now.

Carbon emissions from our homes make up 27 per cent of the UK total. According to Hilary Benn, the Environment Secretary, at the recent launch of the “Act on CO2” advice line: “Changes need to be made in people’s kitchens and living rooms as much as in parliamentary debating chambers or around the international negotiating table.” The advice line (0800 512012) allows anyone in England to get free, tailored advice from the Energy Saving Trust on how to reduce their carbon footprint.

Some cheap and easy tips include:

Replace all light bulbs with energy-efficient ones. They are more expensive than normal bulbs, but they last far longer and are not the glaring and humming glass bricks of yore.

Treat your hot water cylinder to a cosy jacket. An 80mm-thick coat costs about £12 and will save you about £20 per year in heating bills and 160kg a year in emissions.

Set your heating correctly. Your boiler thermostat, time programmer and thermostatic radiator valves should only heat the rooms that you use at the times that you use them.

Source - home energy efficiency